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新闻资讯

扣件的使用寿命和可靠性

2017-03-15

扣件的使用寿命和可靠性很大程度上与扣件用钢的冶金质量有着密切的关系。由于扣件钢所具有的特性,对冶金质量的要求比一般工业用钢要严格的多。
1严格的化学成分要求
一般旋转扣件用钢主要是高碳铬扣件钢,即含碳量1%左右,加入1.5%左右的铬,并含有少量的锰、硅元素的过共析钢。只有严格控制扣件钢中的化学成分,才能通过热处理工序等到满足扣件性能的组织和硬度。
2较高的尺寸精度
对于旋转扣件用钢要求钢材尺寸精度较高, 这是因为大部分扣件零件都要经过压力加工成型。 为了节省材料和提高劳动生产率, 绝大部分扣件套圈都是经过锻造成型,钢球经过冷镦或热锻成型,小尺寸的滚子也是经过冷镦成型,如果钢材的尺寸精度不高,就无法精确的计算下料尺寸和重量,不能保证扣件零件的产品质量,容易造成设
备和模具的损坏。
3特别严格的纯洁度要求
钢中的纯洁度是指钢中所含非金属夹杂物的多少,纯洁度越高,钢中的非金属夹杂物含量越低。扣件钢中的氧化物、硅酸盐、点状不变形夹杂物等有害夹杂物是导致扣件早期疲劳剥落、显著降低扣件寿命的主要原因。而且,脆性夹杂物由于在磨加工过程中容易从金属基体上剥落下来,严重影响扣件零件精加工后的表面质量。为了提高扣件的使用寿命和可靠性,必须降低扣件钢中的非金属夹杂物的含量。
4严格的低倍组织和显微(高倍)组织要求
扣件钢的低倍组织是指一般疏松、中心疏松和偏析,显微(高倍)组织包括扣件钢的退火组织、碳化物网状、带状和液析等。低、高倍组织的优劣对旋转扣件的性能和使用寿命有很大的影响。所以,在扣件钢材料标准中对低、高倍组织有着严格的要求。

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