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扣件的主要性能特点

2017-03-26

 1.扣压力及防爬阻力

    扣件的扣压力的大小是确保钢轨稳定的关键,它与车辆的轴重、速度及是否采用无缝线路及轨下垫层的性能有关。当车辆轴重大、速度较高,采用一般线路时,要求钢轨扣件的扣压力就大;轴重轻、速度低,采用无缝线路时,扣压力可以小一些。扣压力的大小应保证在扣件的使用周期里,当列车制动时,钢轨不发生永久性位移。对于城市轻轨,一般轴重低于160kN,速度不超过100km/h,故对扣件扣压力的要求不是很高,理论计算及实践证明,单一扣压件的扣压力在6~8kN是可以满足要求的。值得注意的是:过大的扣压力并不是有利的,这将导致轨下弹性垫层的初始压缩量增大,损失减振弹性。

    2.轨距及水平调整性能

    轨距调整量主要是解决施工误差和钢轨侧磨而致轨距超限的问题,故要求负的调整量要大。考虑城市轨道交通工务大修周期长,日常维修条件差,要求扣件的轨距调整量比国铁的大,整体道床扣件轨距调整量一般可设计为+8、-12mm。

    结构的沉降绝大部分是在结构设计时考虑并采取措施,但小量的变化仍需钢轨扣件来调整。就目前的结构及轨道施工技术,对地下线要求钢轨扣件有20~30mm的水平调整量。水平调整量的大小与地质情况密切相关,在不良地质条件下,需要扣件有大的水平调整量。对于高架线,要求钢轨扣件有30~40mm水平调整量,主要解决由于相邻桥墩的沉降差落值及梁的收缩徐变而引起的梁面上拱。

    3.扣件节点刚度

    扣件的节点刚度是考查扣件弹性的指标,包括静刚度值、动刚度值及动静比,均需通过室内试验确定。扣件垂向静刚度值是取扣件压缩变形曲线某一段的割线斜率来确定的,一般20~40kN/mm比较合适;动刚度值是扣件的重要指标,表明扣件在动荷载作用下的弹性,即减振性能;设计扣件动静比应控制在1.4以下。

    4. 绝缘性能

    城市轨道交通对钢轨扣件的绝缘性能要求很高,一方面是走行轨作为供电回流轨的要求,另一方面是移动闭塞信号的要求。扣件绝缘性能不好,长此以往,除导致大量电流泄漏、浪费电能外,还会因杂散电流而腐蚀结构钢筋和市政管线。

    在城市轨道设计中,供电、信号等专业对钢轨扣件的绝缘性能都会提出具体要求。就目前的材料技术,达到这些要求是完全可行的。通常扣件中的单个绝缘部件常态绝缘电阻均可以达到108Ω以上,能满足对扣件的绝缘要求。

    5.耐久性能

    扣件的耐久性是通过疲劳试验来验证的,疲劳试验能验证扣件抵抗重复荷载的性能,我国通常是取小半径曲线上的扣件所受的最大荷载来进行试验的。设计扣件时,要依据地铁实测小半径200m曲线地段扣件所受的力,并参照国内外同类扣件的设计荷载。要求组装扣件疲劳荷载一般取竖向50kN,横向30kN,能承受300万次疲劳荷载的循环试验,各部件不损坏。

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